Every PCB we assemble or repair undergoes an initial analysis to determine the most costeffective, reliable way to bring it to specifications. If needed, additional testing and analysis can be conducted during reworking and assembly. And, once work is complete, a final inspection ensures that the work done conforms to project specifications.

  • We routinely employ the VJ Electronix Vertex 130KV X-Ray Inspection System, to see what traditional microscopy cannot, including obscured joints beneath BGAs, QFNs and other components.
  • Each component is given a 4-point inspection using the Technolab BGA Inspector Endoscope (to view at angles unavailable to microscopy) or one of our Meiji and Leica microscopes.
  • When needed, we also use 5DX inspection, an automated X-ray process that takes images of a PCB and compares them to the CAD file used to create the board. This process captures information that can give technicians a much more detailed map, allowing them to find and correct problems before the device is manufactured, improving run yield and profitability.

Of course, all devices are thoroughly inspected before they leave the floor. Its just one more step on the path from concept to completion.

Finding Flaws

As pitch decreases and PCB components get smaller, flaws become far more difficult to find. eTech uses several different methods to locate and address faults, ensuring that our clients receive the best possible end result.


X-ray technology is one of the best possible ways to find faults in nonfunctional PCBs and to make sure that new assemblies are manufactured correctly.

  • We create 3D computerized tomography from many individual images, allowing tiny features to be seen, up to 5m, using image data up to 90 off-axis. This allows us to closely examine the finest details from a wide range of perspectives and address problems that cannot be accurately located without 3D inspection, including terminations under BGAs and package-on-package devices.
  • X-ray examination can distinguish reflow problems of all kinds: poor wetting and insufficient reflow, joint density, ball irregularities, bridges between solder balls, voiding, shorts, and so on. At eTech, we inspect using magnification up to 1950X, finding faults on devices that are simply too small to be examined by less sophisticated technology. Once found, automated defect enhancement is used to highlight problems with color and contour filters, making them easier to see and repair.
  • Our X-ray inspection can be automated, enabling eTech to set inspection parameters and process a large volume of PCBs quickly.

eTech performs a 4-point inspection on each component we repair or install to make sure that every assembly meets stringent specifications. Using up to 450X magnification, we examine every visible solder joint to ensure that each device is assembled and repaired correctly.

Endoscopy also provides a level of documentation that cannot be had by other methods. When you need to track and record rework, we will take images from as many angles as needed, allowing our clients to monitor the process and verify its quality.


For the most complex assemblies, we can perform inspections using 5DX. This automated process allows us to determine the best way to move from prototype to manufacture, finding opportunities for improving finished device quality.

  • To prepare for 5DX examination, a carrier may be built, if needed, and the CAD files entered.
  • The board is then processed, and images captured. Images can reveal a wealth of information. For example, three individual slices can show the solder joints between the BGA and solder balls, the interior of the balls themselves and the connection between the balls and the pad, enabling technicians to locate flaws that cannot be seen by other means.
  • The BOM and assembly drawing are used to compare the existing board against its intended manufacture and build classification, providing thresholds for examination.
  • Once the inspection is complete, eTech can determine the best way to repair a board or improve the production process, increasing device life and reliability.

Non-destructive 5DX analysis can provide faster, more accurate information about a PCB while providing a more repeatable process and a greater degree of confidence going into a manufacturing operation. In order to use 5DX, we must have the appropriate supporting documentation. If you would like to learn more, give us a call.

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ETECH inspection 01t

X-ray inspection can identify all sorts of faults. We inspect at magnifications up to 1950X to ensure precise assembly and rework.

ETECH inspection 02t

Every leadless device that is reworked is given a 4-point inspection using an endoscope or a microscope, in addition to X-ray verification.


We use the Vertex Series A to find faults in nonfunctional PCBs and to make sure that new assemblies are manufactured correctly. X-ray is an excellent mechanism for finding shorts (bridges), voids and insufficient solder joints in leadless devices (BGA, LGA, QFN etc.)