Every PCB we assemble or repair undergoes an initial analysis to determine the most costeffective,
reliable way to bring it to specifications. If needed, additional testing and analysis can
be conducted during reworking and assembly. And, once work is complete, a final inspection
ensures that the work done conforms to project specifications.
- We routinely employ the VJ Electronix Vertex 130KV X-Ray Inspection System, to see what
traditional microscopy cannot, including obscured joints beneath BGAs, QFNs and other
- Each component is given a 4-point inspection using the Technolab BGA Inspector
Endoscope (to view at angles unavailable to microscopy) or one of our Meiji and Leica
- When needed, we also use 5DX inspection, an automated X-ray process that takes images
of a PCB and compares them to the CAD file used to create the board. This process
captures information that can give technicians a much more detailed map, allowing them
to find and correct problems before the device is manufactured, improving run yield and
Of course, all devices are thoroughly inspected before they leave the floor. Its just one more step
on the path from concept to completion.
As pitch decreases and PCB components get smaller, flaws become far more difficult to find.
eTech uses several different methods to locate and address faults, ensuring that our clients
receive the best possible end result.
X-ray technology is one of the best possible ways to find faults in nonfunctional PCBs and to
make sure that new assemblies are manufactured correctly.
- We create 3D computerized tomography from many individual images, allowing tiny
features to be seen, up to 5m, using image data up to 90 off-axis. This allows us to
closely examine the finest details from a wide range of perspectives and address problems
that cannot be accurately located without 3D inspection, including terminations under
BGAs and package-on-package devices.
- X-ray examination can distinguish reflow problems of all kinds: poor wetting and insufficient
reflow, joint density, ball irregularities, bridges between solder balls, voiding, shorts, and so
on. At eTech, we inspect using magnification up to 1950X, finding faults on devices that are
simply too small to be examined by less sophisticated technology. Once found, automated
defect enhancement is used to highlight problems with color and contour filters, making
them easier to see and repair.
- Our X-ray inspection can be automated, enabling eTech to set inspection parameters and
process a large volume of PCBs quickly.
eTech performs a 4-point inspection on each component we repair or install to make sure that
every assembly meets stringent specifications. Using up to 450X magnification, we examine every
visible solder joint to ensure that each device is assembled and repaired correctly.
Endoscopy also provides a level of documentation that cannot be had by other methods. When
you need to track and record rework, we will take images from as many angles as needed,
allowing our clients to monitor the process and verify its quality.
For the most complex assemblies, we can perform inspections using 5DX. This automated
process allows us to determine the best way to move from prototype to manufacture, finding
opportunities for improving finished device quality.
- To prepare for 5DX examination, a carrier may be built, if needed, and the CAD files
- The board is then processed, and images captured. Images can reveal a wealth of
information. For example, three individual slices can show the solder joints between the
BGA and solder balls, the interior of the balls themselves and the connection between the
balls and the pad, enabling technicians to locate flaws that cannot be seen by other means.
- The BOM and assembly drawing are used to compare the existing board against its
intended manufacture and build classification, providing thresholds for examination.
- Once the inspection is complete, eTech can determine the best way to repair a board or
improve the production process, increasing device life and reliability.
Non-destructive 5DX analysis can provide faster, more accurate information about a PCB
while providing a more repeatable process and a greater degree of confidence going into
a manufacturing operation. In order to use 5DX, we must have the appropriate supporting documentation. If you would like to learn more, give us a call.